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She married William Russell Holtsclaw on Nov. In retirement, she worked as a volunteer at Dollens Elementary for 13 years. She was a board member of Child Evangelism South Central area. She was able to travel the world in retirement. Surviving are her children, Melinda Johnson, Martha Craig, Nancy Danny Stewart, and David Leslie Holtsclaw; 13 grandchildren; 29 great-grandchildren; five great-great-grandchildren; and several nieces and nephews. Entombment will be in Cresthaven Memory Gardens. Charles B. He married Linda Lou Day July 10, Charlie was an elder at the Pleasantview Church of Christ and traveled locally to teach in area churches.

He loved to volunteer, spend time in the yard, and enjoyed being with family. Funeral service will be at a. Carolyn Burton Purkhiser. She was born Jan. She married James H. Purkhiser and he preceded her in death on March 15, She was a member of the Bethel Community Church. She is survived by one son, Donald Melaine Smith of Orleans, two daughters, Connie Lindsey of Mitchell and Charlena Smith of Orleans; 31 grandchildren; 19 great-grandchildren; and 15 great-great grandchildren.

She was preceded in death by her parents; husband; one daughter, Christina Harris; one granddaughter; and two grandsons. Burial will follow at Bethel Cemetery in Orleans. Friends are invited to visitation from 11 a. Friday at the funeral home. Online condolences may be sent to the family at ochstetrick. Geneva Anderson. Geneva Turpin Anderson, 90, Leesville, died Friday. Visitation will be from 11 a. John W. John Wallace Bishop, 73, Mitchell, died Saturday.

Graveside service will be at 2 p. Tuesday at Mitchell Cemetery. Helen W. Wagner Reynolds, 86, Bedford, died Friday. May 21, Visitation will be 9 a. Monday at Jones Funeral Home in Heltonville. Services will be 3 p. Monday at the funeral home. May 20, Eldon Lavern Cornelison. Eldon Lavern Cornelison, 89, of Bedford, died at p. Born August 11, , in Anderson, Mo. He married Anna R. Taylor on Sept. He was a veteran of the Korean War serving with the U. Army and a member of the New Union Christian Church. Funeral service will be conducted at 3 p. Burial will follow in New Union Cemetery.

Lois Marie Dobnikar Mason. He married Linda Lou Day on July 10, He loved to volunteer, spend time in the yard and enjoyed being with family. Burial will be in the Mitchell Cemetery.

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Monday and from a. May 19, Rose Ellen Way Pruett. Rose Ellen Pruett, 68, of Bedford, died at a. She married Edward M. Pruett on July 22, , and he survives. Survivors include her husband, Edward M. Pruett Jr. Funeral service will be conducted at 10 a. Curtis Pruett officiating. Burial will follow in Pinhook Cemetery. There will be a Moose service conducted at pm on Friday at the mortuary. Naomi R. Turner Norman. She married Harold Norman on Nov. She had managed Thrift Dollar Store in Bedford. She was preceded in death by her parents; husband; one sister, Dorothy Norman; and one brother, Richard Turner.

Burial will be in Meadows Cemetery. Saturday at the funeral chapel. Cheryl Ann Traub Todd. Cheryl was born in Martinsville on March 23, She married Wayne Todd in and lived in Ellettsville. Cheryl loved her husband, sons, dogs, Page and Paris. She loved gardening and her Longaberger baskets. Funeral services will be on Saturday at 2 p. Burial is to follow at Chambersville Cemetery. Romona Rd. Kenneth E. Speer Jr.

His wife, children, parents and siblings never left his side as his battles of this life yielded to the mercy of our God. He married Cathy Jones on Jan. He was a limestone draftsman at Evans Limestone Co. He was a member of Tabernacle of Praise where he ran the Apologetic Ministries. He was the founder of Concerts for Christ, Luke Ministries and conducted a door-to-door ministry for 20 years. Memorial services will be conducted at 6 p. Following the service the family invites friends to stay for dinner and fireworks celebration.

The family asks that friends consider memorial contributions be made to Tabernacle of Praise Apologetic Ministries. Visitation will be p. Services will be 10 a. Saturday at the mortuary. Judith R. No funeral service, cremation was chosen. Lois M. No services have been planned at this time. Eldon Cornelison. Eldon L. Cornelison, 89, Bedford, died Thursday. May 18, Kenneth Fields. He married Donna Sue Mofield and she preceded him in death in April He was a veteran of the U. Marine Corps serving from to He retired from Crane Naval Base where he was a criminal investigator.

Burial will follow in Cresthaven Memory Gardens where military rites will be accorded. Visitation will be from 10 a. Pamela Ann Phillips Grimes. She married William James Grimes Dec. She was formerly married to Michael McNeely, and he preceded her in death July 22, She graduated from Mitchell High School in She enjoyed gardening, and being around her grandchildren, nieces, and nephews.

Funeral service will be at 1 p. Deanna Lynn Judy. Deanna Lynn Judy, age 51, of Franklin, passed away peacefully at her home at a. She departed this life with her family by her side, following a courageous eight-year battle with cancer. She was the beloved wife of Ray Judy for 33 years.

Deanna was born on May 19, , in Paoli. She was the daughter of Randy and Darla Bowman Sokeland. Besides her husband; she leaves behind two sons, two daughters-in-law, and five grandchildren: Matt and Ashley Judy with their children, Reagan, Makenzie and Ethan of Hanover, and Logan and Rebecca Judy with their children, Grayson and Alice of Lafayette.

Deanna was a loving Christian, wife, mother, Nana, sister, daughter, aunt, and friend. She lived her entire life in faithful service to God. She was a member of the Lakeview Church of Christ in Columbus. Her love for her husband, children and grandchildren was obvious to all who knew her. In recent years, any available time was spent spoiling her grandchildren. A visitation period will be held from Noon until the time of the service at p.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Cancer Treatment Centers of America or a family you know who is battling cancer. Rose E. May 17, Sandra Jo Neal McFarlan.

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Sandra Jo McFarlan, 65, of Bedford, beloved wife, mother, sister and friend, passed away at 2 p. Ryan Neal. Sandra was a graduate of Shawswick High School, with the Class of She worked at Dunn Memorial Hospital until retirement. She loved watching birds and spending time outdoors. She was preceded in death by her parents; husband; and brother, William Wayne Neal; and several aunts and uncles. Burial will be in Cresthaven Memory Gardens.

Raymond Keith Chandler. Raymond Keith Chandler, a resident of Williston, Fla. Ray was 58 years old. Raymond is survived by his wife Sharon Chandler; two sons, Dustin W. Dale Lamb, Joseph A.

Blood Sisters

Potter and Faith Cherry; 10 nephews; eight nieces; 30 great-nieces and nephews; and many aunts, uncles, and cousins in Lawrence County. He was preceded in death by his father, Morgan V. Chandler; father-in-law, Eithemer V. Kenneth Fields, 64, Bedford, died Monday. Funeral service will be at noon on Saturday at the mortuary.

Family and friends are invited to come and share your stories or hear some stories about a wonderful man. Pamela A. May 16, John Richard Kasprzycki, 69, of Bedford, died at a. Born Jan. Whedon Kasprzycki. He married Jo Ann Cunningham on Dec. He was employed in automotive manufacturing most of his career before joining the sales team at Bedford Ford. He was of the Catholic faith. John was Superman to his son and daughter, and a proud grandfather who enjoyed sharing life experiences with his grandchildren. John and Jo Ann enjoyed traveling, especially to historical landmarks. John never met a stranger and enjoyed making people smile with his humorous stories.

Health Hospice House. Breonna LaRea Shirley Simmons. She married Tyranza M. Simmons on Dec. She was a dental hygienist. She was a member of First Assembly of God, Bedford. Burial will be in Green Hill Cemetery. Memorial contributions may be made to the Ferguson-Lee Chapel to assist the family with funeral expenses.

Jean Marie Waddell Jarrard. She was born Oct. She was also preceded by her parents; and sister, Lois Hosie and brother-in-law Calvin Hosie. Jean was a deacon at St. She was a homemaker, a devoted wife, mother, and grandmother; always remembering birthdays, anniversaries and important dates with a card in the mail to follow. She loved golf, playing cards, and traveling — she and Ray enjoyed a long retirement in Florida full of their favorite hobbies. Donald Vern Walls. Donald Vern Walls, 87, of Mitchell passed away at p.

He was a loving father and grandfather. He was born in Paoli on Dec. Donald attended Paoli High School and was a U. Air Force Veteran; Donald was a retired U. Mail rural carrier, and a former member of the Orleans Masonic Lodge. Survivors include two daughters, Rhonda L. Donald was preceded in death by his parents; wife; daughter, Rhea Dawn Sons; and brother, Jimmy Walls. Funeral service will be held at 3 p. Ronald W. Born Aug. Ron retired from General Electric. Wednesday, and from 10 a. Casketbearers: Ron Newby Jr. Sandra Mcfarlan. Thursday at the Ferguson-Lee Chapel.

Service is at 11 a. Tony R. Tony Ray Kesterson, 51, Mitchell, died Sunday. May 15, Charles Donald Reeder. Charles Donald Reeder, Indianapolis, beloved father, husband, and friend passed away May 10, , after a brief illness. After graduating from Ball State University in , he began teaching in Indianapolis. He and Sue traveled the country especially loving the backroads. Charlie was a skilled craftsman who could build, make or fix anything that required a tool.

He was well known and loved for his quick wit, sense of humor and good natured practical jokes. A celebration of life will be held Wednesday, May 17, with visitation at 11 a. Ronald Wayne Newby. May 14, George Wilson Harp. George served in the U. Air Force and was discharged in as a Staff Sergeant. While in the military, he met Jane Helen Carlson. The two were wed in Seguin, Texas, on January 27, Buck and Jane raised their four children in Kirksville; later they moved to Williams and then to East Oolitic in their retirement.

George worked for the Sarkes Tarzian company, after which he turned to carpentry. He worked for Weddle Brothers and F. Wilhelm, among other companies. He retired from the maintenance department of Central Foundry in Visitation will be from 2 p. Graveside services will be held at a later date at Kentucky Ridge Cemetery. Memorial contributions may be made to the VFW.

May 13, Breonna S. Breonna Shirley Simmons, 25, Bedford, died Friday. May 12, He was born in Lawrence County on Dec. He was a very loving son, brother and friend. Mary Katherine Pruett Wigley. She graduated from West Baden High School in She was preceded in death by her parents; husband; brothers, Gordon Pruett, Carl Pruett, Clifford Pruett and an infant brother. Rob Martindale and Pastor Dwight Dunbar officiating.

Burial will be in Bonds Chapel Cemetery. May 11, Daniel E. In , Dan began enthusiastically serving his country by enlisting in the Army. Dan continued to serve honorably for the next 26 years and ascended through the military ranks until his retirement as a Lt. Colonel from the Indiana Army National Guard. Throughout his years of service, Dan mentored many young men and women in their training at Camp Atterbury and other military installations. He could be counted on to participate in local events such as parade units and other functions in order to raise money for young people and their needs in this community.

He was a year member of the Mitchell Masonic Lodge No. Upon retirement from Crane, he enjoyed bluegrass music, riding his motorcycle, and playing his banjo. Most of all, he enjoyed his time with family and friends. He attended the Restoration Church of the Nazarene, Bedford. He was an officer and a gentleman who could be depended upon to give selflessly of his time and talents to those who were fortunate to be associated with him.

His clever sense of humor and wit brightened any room during times of celebration as well as cushioning times of strife. He was preceded in death by his parents; his great-granddaughter, Kyla Bailey; and his great-nephew, Luke Sorrells. Burial will follow in Bryantsville Church of Christ Cemetery. Edgar D. He married Ruth Walters in Bedford and they would have celebrated their 61st wedding anniversary on Oct.

Edgar graduated from Shawswick High School in He served in the U. Edgar worked as a service representative for Indiana Gas and then Vectren Energy retiring after 29 years of service. Edgar was a major basketball fan and coached at the Boys Club for 22 years. He was affectionately known as the man with a Coke and a smile. He loved to joke and had a wonderful sense of humor. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Boys and Girls Club of Lawrence County, in his name. Robert E. Block Russell. He married Leona Marie Tanksley Dec. He graduated from Oolitic High School in , and received an associate degree from Vincennes University.

He was an avid fan of Indiana University Basketball. Bruce Ervin officiating. Saturday, and from 1 p. Sharon J. Saturday at Mitchell Cemetery. May 10, Bradley Wayne Sturgeon Sr. Bradley Wayne Sturgeon, Sr. He married Tammie L. Day on Jan. Funeral services will be conducted at 11 a. Private burial will follow in the Greene County Chapel Cemetery. Jerry Lee. He married Beverly Elizabeth Slaughter Sept. He enjoyed spending time with his grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

He also enjoyed mushroom hunting, working in his yard, whittling, and making maple syrup. Jerry created jewelry from wood and mussel shells. Burial will be in Huron Cemetery. Friday, and from 10 a. Sorrells, 79, Bedford, died Sunday. Friday and a. Saturday at the Ferguson-Lee Chapel. Services are 11 a. Walters, 78, Bedford, died Sunday. No services are scheduled. Cremation was chosen. Arrangements by Cresthaven Funeral Home, Bedford. Friday at Mitchell Cemetery. Robert Russell. May 09, Wilford M. Davidson, 88, of Bedford, died at a. He married Lola Mulkey Blackburn on Aug.

Marine Corps, and had worked at Medora Plastics Co. Graveside services will be held at 11 a. There will be no calling at the funeral home. Online condolences may be left to the family at www. Jerry Lee, 77, Huron, died Monday at his residence. May 08, Robert M. Robert Merrill Lee, 96, of Bedford died peacefully on May 5, , surrounded by his loving family.

A bright and precocious child, he survived difficult years during the Depression, but lived great adventures as a young man in Bedford. He graduated from Bedford High School in , and then attended Hanover College, where his passion and skill for sports earned him two letters in baseball and three letters in football. Army as a medic for 38 months in Africa, Sicily, and Italy. Louis, Mo. They were married in and he earned his BA degree in His first teaching and coaching job was in New Castle, from , where he was the head track coach, assistant basketball, and assistant football coach.

In his 25 years in education, he taught U. History, Russian History, and Physical Education, and coached football, track, freshman and B team basketball, boys golf 19 years , and girls golf 3 years. Nine of his golf teams played in state championship tournaments. He also coached Babe Ruth baseball in Bedford, and led his team to win two championships.

Bob made quite an impression on the students he taught and athletes he coached, many of whom have kept in close touch with him throughout their lives. He served on the Board of Directors of the Bedford Boys Club for 33 years, and received the following awards for his service: 1. The Man and Boy Award 2.

The Bronze Key Award 3. The Ron Smith Award. He is also survived by sister, Anne Rittmeyer of Bedford, and several nieces and nephews. Bob had a lifetime love for all sports. On retirement to Arizona, he was an active and popular tennis player. In , Bob traveled to Washington, D. He reflected upon this one-day trip as the best experience of his life. Private family ceremony to follow. Hanford G. He spent his professional career as a bulldozer operator at Indiana Limestone for 44 years.

He was deeply loved by his family and friends. He was an outstanding father and pap, and loved his children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren very much. He also appreciated his trusted and loyal friends, Dwight and Max Volz; and his cousin, Kelsie Martin. He was preceded in death by his parents; one sister, Margie Meadows; and three brothers, Wendell, Robert, and Marion Prince.

Burial will follow in the Clover Hill Cemetery. Lloyd Phillips. Funeral services will be conducted at 2 p. Burial will follow in Springville West Cemetery. He was previously married to Lucille Thompson. Tom bought and sold lumber for more than 50 years. He flew his own Beechcraft Baron with his lumber business. May 07, Robert Lee. Not only is the tale mutable, changing from context to context, but the positions of speaker and listener are also variable. A listener can become a speaker by choosing to relate the tale: the authority for tale-telling is itself transferable from one participant to another.

In this way, the wisdom contained within tales is passed on from one generation to the next. Both instances are extreme forms of audience participation that re-emphasise the importance of the co-text: the manner and technique with which the tale is presented. The gods within the tale act as a kind of stage audience; their amusement parallels the pleasure that the storyteller gives his listeners. Within the unspoken pact of speaker and listener, the tale is an open-ended or dialogic form.

Parable and Fable Parable and fable are closely related forms. The former is a type of storytelling that operates by analogy. While the narrative may be fictional, its aim is to instruct the reader according to a higher religious or moral purpose. This lack of detail allows, instead, for an ironic humour that complements the violence of the fables. In some contexts, it is better to be a fox; in others a lion or even a mouse.

The ass, though, is the eternal victim. The stories of Bertolt Brecht, written in exile from Nazi Germany, can for instance be read as political fables. Like his nineteenth-century predecessor, J. Hebel, Brecht wants his readers to think but he does not instruct them on what to think.

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The Creation myth is a type of parable, but although conceived within a religious framework that considers the events to be fundamentally true, the myth describes not only in terms of moral order how the world came to be. In The Epic of Gilgamesh, the Creation myth is presented as a tale within a tale, which is told to the eponymous hero by Utnapishtim, the immortal survivor of the divine Flood that reshaped the world. Gilgamesh has pursued Utnapishtim into the underworld in search of everlasting life following the death of his soul-mate, Enkidu.

The senseless actions of Enlil, the From Folktale to Art-Tale 5 warrior god who summoned the Flood, prefigure the foolish hopes of Gilgamesh to secure immortality. Gilgamesh, like his audience, only realises the wisdom of the myth once his search has ended in failure. In contrast, the Flood narrative recorded in the King James Bible is written with confidence and authority. It bears witness by emphasising details, times, names and places. Jupiter demands for the world to be destroyed due to the evil of men.

The other gods are dismayed but Jupiter quells their protest by promising to create an improved human species which he singularly fails to do. Unlike the biblical God, Jupiter opts for a flood as an afterthought. The ensuing description of devastation is rich and evocative: it functions not as a parable but as drama. In this sense, the Roman Creation myth acts more as a portrait of human, rather than divine, society and less as a piece of religious instruction. Boccaccio uses a similar strategy in The Decameron.

Ten Florentines escape the plague-ridden city to the countryside. Fairy Tale The popularisation of the framed narrative by Boccaccio and Chaucer influenced collectors of folktales such as Giovan Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile. Thirteen ladies and gentlemen flee political persecution to the island of Murano near Venice.

Riddles were also added to the end of each tale rather than a didactic message. Although the tales may feature moral observations, they do not function as parables. Wit, low comedy, tragedy and sexual frankness exist alongside one another. During the course of civil service both in Italy and overseas, Basile overheard and recorded folktales from his servants and other members of the lower orders. Later, he elaborated these tales in a baroque literary style that made use of the Neapolitan dialect.

Basile wrote for an aristocratic audience, so while he drew upon folk culture, he combined these references with a parody of elite culture, including canonical texts such as the Decameron. The structure of Il Pentamerone consists of fifty tales, including the frame-story that opens and closes the collection, related by a group of hags summoned by the Princess Zoza.

Although the tales of Basile and Straparola were circulated among an aristocratic readership for their own amusement, the stories were 8 The Short Story still linked to their folk roots. The tale becomes a vehicle for moral and social instruction, a medium through which children are taught how to be civilised. In the process, the fairy tale is gradually removed from its folk origins. This displacement can be seen most clearly in the work of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. As the title indicates, these tales were addressed towards the domestic space associated with children and their mothers.

Like Perrault, the Grimms streamlined the tales but inculcated the narratives with the austere beliefs of Protestantism. Unlike the playfulness of Basile, the violence of the Grimms is directed towards a didactic message based upon punishment and proscription while sexuality is either repressed or denied.

It is for this reason that psychoanalysis becomes such a useful tool in decoding the hidden meanings within Perrault and the Brothers Grimm. In other words, despite the academic interest in folk culture, the fairy tale is slowly appropriated, in this case for the services of the German bourgeoisie. Throughout America and Europe in the nineteenth century, many art-tales were composed.

The fairy tale was a popular and accessible form for readers, while its motifs, especially that of magic, allowed writers to comment upon and transform the observable world. Though fairy tales can be read in terms of social comment, art-tales are written with an expressed artistic or political purpose in mind. The nose, though, reappears dressed in government uniform, and proceeds to lead an active life around St Petersburg. The bridegroom dies in a mining accident and his body is lost.

Years later, the corpse is rediscovered, petrified in ferrous vitriol, so that the body has not decayed. It is the former bride, who has spent the rest of her life in mourning, who identifies the body: The hearts of all those there were moved to sadness and tears when they saw the former bride-to-be as an old woman whose beauty and strength had left her; and the groom still in the flower of his youth; and how the flame of young love was rekindled in her breast after fifty years, yet he did not open his mouth to smile, nor his eyes to recognize her.

Hebel 27 Through a chance occurrence, bordering upon magic, two separate times are brought into relation with one another. In-between, though, Hebel relates an extraordinary chronicle of miscellaneous events — wars, natural disasters, political upheavals — that proceed without apparent consequence upon the lives of the common folk. In other words, as the fairy tale was gradually removed from its folk roots to become an instrument within the civilising process of young children, so writers such as Gogol and Hebel found within its resources a medium for social and philosophic thought.

The art-tale, then, is an important development since it bridges the gap between the folktale and the modern short story. From this brief survey, it is possible to draw some preliminary conclusions. First, while tales often feature moral messages, they are not innately didactic, though they have subsequently been used for moral purposes.

Second, while narrative elements reoccur, tales are mutable: they alter according to their retelling but these changes are not sudden. Tales are slowly transformed over From Folktale to Art-Tale 11 time and within social contexts. Third, the mutability of tales runs counter to the fixed arrangement of the printed page. The success of Boccaccio was to write in a literary style that highlighted the framing and perspective of narration, while also displaying sensitivity to the spoken voice.

Chaucer and Basile recapture a semblance of the oral tradition through their respective use of rhetorical play: the mixing of modes and registers. Fourth, despite the rationalisation of the tale as an instrument of social conduct in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, writers addressing an adult audience realised in the tale a capacity for artistic and social purpose. These observations, in varying degrees, are relevant to the development of the short story.

Gilgamesh is transformed from the warrior to the storyteller, who explores uncharted territories, converts his experience into art and establishes his authority through the wisdom he has accrued. This deeply self-conscious notion of the artist will also be important to an understanding of the short story. On the folktale and the fairy tale, see respectively the influential formalist study by Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk-Tale , and the psychoanalytic account by Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment Its immediate and accessible form allowed writers to comment upon the attitudes and organisation of modern society.

If earlier fairy tales tended to be one-dimensional, for example the moral didacticism of Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm, then the art-tale tended to be multi-layered and ambiguous. Either response can be supported by a reading of the text, an interpretative split which is precipitated by the draught that sends Rip into his twenty-year sleep, and which argues for the new American democracy to be composed of disputatious voices rather than a monotone.

The ambiguity of the art-tale, though, echoes a much earlier form of wordplay: the riddle. The interruption of lifelike scenarios by magical or uncanny events, for example in the stories of Nikolai Gogol and J. Readers are presented with an intriguing puzzle so that the art-tale can be regarded as a riddle concealed within a narrative. Riddle stories were widespread throughout the nineteenth century. Since the interest of the story rests upon this final conceit, the narrative is nothing but a riddle.

Riddle stories became part of the bedrock of short fiction, for example in the tall tales of Henry Lawson, Stephen Leacock and Mark Twain and in the development of the detective story by Edgar Allan Poe and Arthur Conan Doyle. The riddle story is, arguably, one of the most influential sub-genres within the history of short fiction. Yet, it has often been neglected by short story critics since, by its very nature, the riddle story tends towards plot rather than characterisation. Coppard and Katherine Mansfield. Furthermore, the riddle story has traditionally thrived within the competitive world of the mass market as opposed to the more precious realm of the small literary magazine.

To understand the development of the short story, though, it is necessary to rethink the role of the riddle and to decline from segregating short stories according to professional taste. The aim of this chapter is to argue that an early form of modernist short fiction emerges, precisely, out of the riddle rather than in opposition. Two other sub-genres, the hoax and, following Brander Matthews 70 , what I will term the conundrum, will also be discussed.

The language of a riddle is metaphorical, since it describes an object as if it were something else, as if two nonidentical things were the same. By the same token, the riddle story reveals a secret in a manner oblique yet suggestive of an underlying 14 The Short Story pattern. Nathaniel Hawthorne inherited two contradictory ideologies. On the one hand, he was the descendant of Puritan settlers; on the other hand, he was a beneficiary of the Enlightenment project that underscored the American War of Independence — The Puritans were devout Protestants, who fled England in the early seventeenth century because of their fears surrounding persecution and Catholic insurgency.

For the Puritans, no human being could fully understand the ways of God since that would suggest that humanity was on a par with God. Instead, God revealed Himself through signs and wonders that demanded interpretation upon the part of His believers. Consequently, reading and the precise attribution of meaning were fundamentally important facets of Puritan culture. Yet, whereas the Puritan community was rigid and hierarchical, the Declaration of Independence defended personal freedom and individual happiness. Both movements were rational in their beliefs, but they disagreed over the type of society they sought to create.

It claims that the following story is a translation from the work of M. Though the narrative is written in the third-person, it is told through the eyes of Giovanni. It is his function to decipher the events that are occurring around him. Yet, Hawthorne demystifies the Puritan faith in the reading of signs by showing the sign to be unstable and the reader to be subjective: But.

It was an idle thought; there could be no possibility of distinguishing a faded flower from a fresh one at so great a distance. Reading is shown to be an ambiguous but necessary activity in which the responsibility for interpretation is passed from the author to his readers. Yet, while the central mystery is solved, another riddle emerges. Consequently, the story is once more twice-told.

As the main plotline is resolved, so a further irresolution is opened up, an ambiguity that only the reader can decide. In exposing the network of fictions which underpin not only his story but also patriarchal society, Hawthorne leaves open the possibility of transcending these cultural myths. The riddle story, allied to the art-tale, calls moral and social truths into question. As Poe shows in the stories featuring his detective hero, Auguste Dupin, he believed in the ability of the human mind to explain an incomprehensible universe.

Poe believed that the virtues of Enlightenment thought — reason and logic — were too narrowly defined: they omitted any role for the imagination and, as a consequence, ignored the darker recesses of the human mind. If the story is not a hoax then what exactly is it? Whereas the riddle story ultimately denotes an underlying pattern, the hoax resists a similar movement towards closure. It insists upon a final hesitancy towards truth; an ambiguous play surrounding categories of knowledge.

Poe was unable to prove his accusation, but nine years later, he had his revenge. The Sun was a cheaply produced newspaper that specialised in scoops and sensational stories. A special edition, featuring the full story, was published later that day and quickly sold out. The following day though, when the story was reprinted elsewhere, it was revealed to be a fiction penned by Poe. The story mixes literary registers by commencing as journalistic prose but continuing in the form of a diary.

Real-life figures, such as the aviator Monck Mason, the inventor William Henson, the novelist Harrison Ainsworth and the politician Robert Hollond, appear alongside fictional characters. A notorious example occurred in when a group of political activists reprinted J. The delegates, apparently, accepted it at face value.

Whereas the riddle questions the relationship between truth and falsehood, hoaxes such as those by Poe or Ballard Riddles, Hoaxes and Conundrums 19 doubt the very distinction itself. Inspired by personal rivalry with another writer and editor, the story participates within an emerging culture of celebrity: its success was meant to garner fresh attention for Poe. Yet, hoaxes also reveal the superficiality of such a culture; their collapsing of the boundaries between truth and falsehood prompts their readers into greater scepticism.

Hoaxes transfer the responsibility of interpretation to their consumers, and in the process it is they — not the hoaxer — who are made to bear the weight of accountability. The chase, though, comes to involve a fellow critic, George Corvick, and a female novelist, Gwendolen Erme. Corvick claims to have discovered the secret but makes its revelation conditional upon his marriage to Gwendolen, a union repeatedly frustrated by her mother.

This suggestion provokes the quest, but for the purpose of the search, the figure must be absent and unknown, yet always present, since its disappearance determines all that occurs in the rest of the narrative. The contradiction of an absence that is simultaneously present is very similar to a hoax, since it appears to be what it is not. Since the cause preconditions the quest, from which it is nonetheless absent, revelation never comes.

This endless play of meaning constitutes what deconstructionists often refer to as an aporia: literally, a routeless route, a path that leads nowhere. These potential keys to the narrative, though, are frustrated by how the narrative is structured and framed. There is no single presiding narrative voice and no final word to pass judgement upon the story that they each tell to the best of their abilities.

The elisions that characterise these narratives connect the riddle story and the hoax to an emerging modernist Riddles, Hoaxes and Conundrums 21 aesthetic in which the emphasis falls not upon the object of the representation but upon its manner: its style and form. Conundrums are also marked by a sense of loss — missing objects, random details, shifting contexts — that disrupts the seemingly linear and causal narrative. Each of these sub-genres, the riddle, the hoax and the conundrum, treats the apparently stable categories of truth and falsehood to increasing scepticism.

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The truth, if there is one, appears to reside somewhere beyond the text, not within, as the characters are led to believe. Each story reveals the propensity of the form for mystery, play and pastiche. Readers are increasingly made aware of the darkness that surrounds these narratives, a darkness to which they themselves are made responsible by the weight of interpretation being transferred from the author. In other words, an ethical imperative underlines these fictions see also Chapter This pretence not only characterises the enigmatic quality to be found in much short fiction but it also links the short story with its antecedent, the folktale.

As the mystery deepens, so the narrative grows more layered and ambiguous. This tendency within short fiction for the narrative to become less transparent relates the form to the morphological quality of the folktale, which is to say, while there are fundamental characteristics to any genre, the rest of the narrative form operates in a flux.

As Chapter 1 concluded, the folktale is mutable and open-ended. The enigma and dissimulation associated with the riddle and related forms extend this sense of mutability inherent to storytelling into print fiction. According to Benjamin, the communication of wisdom learnt through experience could only be passed on from one generation to the next in closely knit communities. Memory, Modernity and Orality 23 Once families and rural societies are scattered by the forces of urbanisation and secularisation, the infrastructure upon which storytelling is dependent is displaced.

The art of storytelling declines as individuals lose the ability of telling tales and as other forms of communication, most notably print media, take precedence. For Benjamin, the key concept is retelling. Here, Benjamin distinguishes between two kinds of experience: Erfahrung, in which the shock of events and impressions continues to reverberate, and Erlebnis, in which the rational mind screens itself against surprising or unsettling incidents by reordering them into a temporal sequence.

Whereas the experience of Erfahrung continues to resonate, the experience of Erlebnis can only be consciously recalled. In this sense, the emphases upon retelling and remembrance to be found in the folktale are closer to the richer, more disturbing and less ordered experience of Erfahrung. Yet, since the object is moving so quickly, the artist must work from memory, a dilemma that Baudelaire describes as a duel: In this way a struggle is launched between the will to see all and forget nothing and the faculty of memory, which has formed the habit of a lively absorption of general colour and of silhouette, the arabesque of contour.

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An artist with a perfect sense of form but one accustomed to relying above all on his memory and his imagination will find himself at the mercy of a riot of details all clamouring for justice with the fury of a mob in love with absolute equality. Yet, while writers have praised the short story for its air of immediacy, readers can regard this emphasis as a sign of superficiality. At the turn of the last century, G. Chesterton noted: Our modern attraction to short stories is not an accident of form; it is the sign of a real sense of fleetingness and fragility; it means that existence is only an illusion.

A short story of to-day has the air of a dream; it has the irrevocable beauty of a falsehood. The moderns, in a word, describe life in short stories because they are possessed with the sentiment that life is an uncommonly short story, and perhaps not a true one. A further complication, which surrounds this question of immediacy versus insubstantiality, appears in academic criticism of the short story.

Having made this distinction, Baldeshwiler glosses any further discussion of the epical mode, and concentrates instead upon writers such as Anton Chekhov, A. The response of writers, who make an unmediated comparison between the brevity of the short story form and the fleetingness of modern life, and the reaction of critics, who either treat this impression as a lack of substance or a marker of cultural value, neglect the dialectical basis of the criticisms of both Baudelaire and Benjamin.

The capacity for the folktale to communicate diminishes as individuals, by the forces of capital and the organisation of urban life, are estranged from themselves and from each other. What is left, in the tales of Leskov, Kipling and Poe, is the afterglow of storytelling: the melancholic beauty of an art form as it disappears. The so-called lyricism of the short story is, on these terms, no more than romantic pathos because the rise of the short story is itself symptomatic of social change and the break-up of community.

It describes how the inflections within tone and register, accent and idiom, are embedded within an underlying cultural and social context that predetermines spoken narration as mutable, open-ended, compromised, fragmented, stylistically shifting. Orality reveals spoken narrative to Memory, Modernity and Orality 27 have always been impure and malleable. Conrad The question of authenticity is compounded by the absence of the speaker, a stevedore and amateur storyteller.

Yet, the unedited quality of the narration, however much it might be a conceit, attests to the legacy of the storyteller. The vocal expressiveness of storytelling lingers but as a kind of spectre. The ghostly presence of oral and folk culture has been especially important to postmodern writers. An eagle swoops and carries him to his goal: I approached the symbol, with its layers of meaning, but when I touched it, it changed into only a beautiful princess. I threw the beautiful princess headfirst down the mountain to my acquaintances. Who could be relied upon to deal with her.

Nor are eagles plausible, not at all, not for a moment. Barthelme In casting down the Rapunzel-like figure, the narrator appears to be displacing the transcendent realm of myth for an acceptance of the mess and confusion associated with history. Although the narrator is disappointed with the object of fairy tale desire, the need for something beyond the mundane remains: the myth-making appeal of narrative.

In many ways, the postmodern has defined itself by working upon the remains of pre-modern literature. This anachronistic process of reinvention describes, in its very operation, the crisis inherent to modernity that Benjamin diagnoses. Unlike the greater realism of the short story, the tale is drawn to the unconscious and to subject-matter considered socially unacceptable. This distinction allows Carter to equate the tale with other non-literary forms such as the Gothic, ballads and pornography.

The story draws upon Greek mythology and biblical narrative as well as non-folk material: grand opera, painting especially surrealism , photography and a mixed array of fictions by, among others, Daphne du Maurier, J. Instead, it is more like a concatenation in which folktales resound through one another and are retold through other cultural sources.

She not only emphasises the mutability and impurity of the folktale, as opposed to the polish of the professionally told short story, but she also scrutinises the values attached to folktales by treating them as readymade objects that can be redeployed and reinvented. By turning the fairy tale against itself, Carter reveals its ideological function, especially its use by men to instruct women, but by mixing the fairy tale with modern sources, Carter shows how this function persists in contemporary society.

In contrast with postmodern approaches, orality continues to perform a vital role in immigrant and indigenous cultures. This time, Paley produces a more fanciful and extraordinary narrative that strains the believability of her characters, but which also makes the ending even more downbeat. You too. When will you look it in the face? Paley, though, has the upper hand on her father by ending her narrative on a question since it leaves their dialogue open-ended. The unresolved tension hints at the possibility of hope as well as tragedy while also commenting upon the physical and emotional distance between father and daughter.

The stories were written between and , and counterpoint the growth of the US Civil Rights Movement. Although these stories are not overtly political, the characters are selfconsciously the products of their environment, and they are aware of political events that are changing the relationships within their community. Storytelling becomes a form of protest insofar as the grandfather and the granddaughter choose the manner of their own annihilation. The joke describes the immigrant experience. To the onlooker, Juanito may be nothing but in his memory he remains a dog of status and worth.

He has come to America in search of promise and opportunity but he remains attached to what he once was in Cuba. You see, in Cuba, it was very common to retire to a game of dominos after a good meal. It was a way to bond and build community. Folks, you here are seeing a slice of the past.

A simpler time of good friendships and unhurried days. Further Reading On the relationship between oral and print culture, see Walter J. Ong May The popular success of O. Henry established a working model for the short story that has endured with magazines such as The New Yorker. In his day, Poe was a marginal figure, but arguably his distance from commercial and critical respectability allowed him to divine the future development of the short story.

On the one hand, he saw himself as an aesthete, a poet and intellectual, but on the other hand, he regarded himself as a jobbing writer, who wrote tales of Poe, O. Henry and the Well-Made Story 33 mystery and horror to suit the marketplace, and whose virulent essays were often an exercise in self-promotion. During the s and s, the first American railroads were laid, while new forms of communication, such as photography and telegraphy, were patented. The Frontier expanded as new trails were opened. In his scientific romances and detective stories, Poe is drawn to fresh discoveries, to the power of reasoning, and to tales of physical and psychological exploration.

At the same time, Poe was physically and financially adrift before finally becoming resident in New York City in Whereas Besant and James confined themselves to discussions of the novel, Matthews sought to open the debate to include short fiction. Second, Matthews dispenses with any reference to the tale. Looking back upon the s, H. In the United States, similar criticisms were voiced by, among others, H. Canby and Herbert Ellsworth Cory. While there were certainly many formulaic well-made stories, their number has been exaggerated because of the presence of two highly successful writers Rudyard Kipling in Britain, O.

Henry in North America and their band of imitators. Lastly, the well-made story not only covers plot-driven narratives but also artfully told stories of subtle impression: a nuance in emotion, a shift in perception and a use of delicate irony. Some of the finest British practitioners of the well-made story during the twentieth century include Somerset Maugham, A.

Coppard, H. Bates, V. Pritchett and Elizabeth Taylor. Poe, O. Then again, the well-made story was still a relatively recent invention. While the short story continued to be undefined, not only was it formless as many critics have argued but also open to experimentation in a way that lacked the self-consciousness of modernist writers, who had to work against the strictures of the well-made story. The tales of Herman Melville are a case in point. Taken together, the two halves lack the formal unity demanded by Poe, while a relatively unsophisticated reading would suggest that the hardship of the women is to be contrasted with the luxury of the men.

In this way, the hedonistic lifestyles of the lawyers are implicated in an economic structure that necessitates the impoverishment of workers on another continent. The exercise of writing is itself prone to the unseen network of economic processes. The satires of Mark Twain also run counter to the doctrine of the well-made story. Twain links his own writing to two traditions, the yarn and the picaresque, both of which are oral in origin.

Perelman and Damon Runyan, the moral ambiguity of his tales looks forward to modernist innovators such as Ernest Hemingway and, even, Donald Barthelme. The title sounds the only ironic note. Was Twain told the story or did he overhear it, and if so, is the story accurately reported? In the tradition of folktale collectors, Hardy assembled family stories, eyewitness accounts and local legends to construct a picture of Dorset from the early part of the nineteenth century.

The satisfaction of these tales lies in their lack of definition as well-made stories and in their capturing of an oral culture before that society disappears. It is not a surprise that the well-made story was criticised by academic figures such as H. Canby, but this complaint focused upon one writer in particular: O. Between and , O. Henry published over two-hundred and fifty short stories, making him the most successful American storywriter of his day.

The twist, though, became an expected part of O. Writing in , the critic N. Bryllion Fagin attacked O. This intellectualisation of O. Instead, the success of O. The story is set at Christmastime and centres upon a young, poor married couple. Della wants to buy Jim a present worthy of him so she sells her most valued possession: her hair.

That evening, Della confesses what she has done but is made to feel even guiltier when Jim presents her with a beautiful set of combs.

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Then Della gives Jim his present, only to discover that Jim has had to sell his watch to buy her gift. A short coda compares Della and Jim to the Magi for they had true wisdom, since they had discovered that their love resided not in possessions but for each other. As this description suggests, the story is deeply sentimental, and despite being set in New York, it has a Dickensian feel. Nonetheless, it does not have the sketchiness that Fagin asserts. It would not be unfair to say that O. In short, they are middlebrow. The real test of O.

Rosalie Ray had been a high-wire act on Broadway. At the end of each performance she would send a silk garter to the audience below.

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  5. Rosalie retires and marries a reverend, Poe, O. Arthur, though, has kept a memento and when Rosalie discovers it she finds, somewhat unsurprisingly, that it is one of the garters from her act. The timing and the disguising of the twist demand genuine skill on O. Despite the criticisms voiced of O. Henry in the period after his fame, the well-made story has remained part of the bedrock of the American short story. During the twentieth century it became most associated with The New Yorker founded , one of the bastions of short fiction in the United States.

    In the immediate postwar period the magazine promoted the work of writers such as John Cheever, J. Salinger and John Updike. Further Reading On the American periodical market and the use of creative writing handbooks, see Andrew Levy Hayes On Twain and O. Henry, see respectively Henry B. Henry and the American short story has been discussed by Richard Fusco For a general account of British well-made stories, see Walter Allen On the underlying theme of cultural taste, see Pierre Bourdieu The image of the short story as culturally marginal relates to its economic position.

    In Europe, the traditions of the essay, the speculative piece known as the feuilleton, and the independently produced pamphlet have encouraged a deep respect for short fiction, yet this reverence remains contingent upon market economics. Although magazine circulation has ensured an enduring role for the short story in Europe and the United States, it has also fostered the idea that the form is ephemeral.

    Magazine stories do not have the same physical or cultural status as fiction published in book-form. Short story critics have often viewed English literature as dominated by the novel, and consequently have tended to diminish the achievements of English short storywriters. Taking the economic history of the English short story as a case study, though, highlights similar practices whereby the short story has, to a lesser extent, been marginalised in America and Europe.

    Furthermore, an account of the origins of the 44 The Short Story English short story, its florescence at the end of the nineteenth century and its current struggle to survive puts into perspective the successes of English short storywriters in the face of adversity. Instead of adopting an opinionated or didactic tone, The Spectator used satire and irony to expose public vice and personal folly, often in the form of sketches with fictional characters. During the course of the eighteenth century, many other writers wrote oriental tales, including, most notably, William Beckford and Samuel Johnson.

    Although the oriental tale rehearsed many of the elements of the Nights, including genies, princesses, sultans, magical objects and enchanted landscapes, it functioned as both moral allegory and exotic entertainment. In this respect, the oriental fable paralleled the social uses of the fairy tale while, at the same time, diverging from the trend towards realism in the English novel. Yet, as Wendell Harris has argued, the growth of the English short story was impeded by the pre-eminence of the realist novel, in particular its capacity to show the inter-relatedness between events, people, regions, classes and economics Harris 16— Since the short story was unable to sustain a similar panoramic view, it appeared to be a lesser form than the novel, both artistically and morally, and discouraged English writers from its use except in the form of the ghost story: see Chapter In France, by contrast, the distinction between conte and nouvelle was not as polarised.

    Underpinning this aesthetic prejudice were legal, economic and technological factors. Between and , though, advertising duties, Stamp Duty and Paper Duty were repealed, with the result that many new newspapers and magazines were established, particularly in the provinces, while circulations increased. There remained, though, a sharp divide between serious literature for the upper and middle classes and popular literature for the working classes.

    Serious literature remained constrained until the s by the dominance of the three-volume novel, the practice of serialisation and the moral censorship of the circulating libraries. Since for many readers novels were expensive to buy, circulating libraries made fiction available through the use of an annual subscription fee. Consequently, they also wielded great influence over what their subscribers got to read.

    By the s, writers such as Thomas Hardy and George Moore, whose work was morally ambiguous and sexually explicit, were in open conflict with the circulating libraries. Journals, too, exerted considerable control as long as circulation rather than advertising remained the principal source of revenue.

    These tropes arguably ran counter to the short story form. Serialisation also allowed writers to edit their work as it appeared or for editors to impose cuts. By this method, serialisation enabled a moral code to be enforced. In contrast, when in the new art journal, Black and White, declared that it would only feature short stories, its decision was regarded as a novelty. As with all such indiscriminate terms, it was used to demonise the literature and to create a sense of moral panic within middle-class society.

    Instead, with little financial incentive for writers to experiment with form and content when they could be paid by the word for drawn-out serialisations, popular literature also remained resistant to the development of the short story. After the s, though, a combination of factors changed the literary culture. The expanding periodical market was aided by technological improvements. The look of newspapers was enhanced by good-quality illustrations, and by , the reproduction of photographs.

    In the last two decades of the nineteenth century forty-eight new journals appeared, and by there were quarterlies in London and monthlies Richardson xlv. Each of these outlets demanded fresh material, while the diversification of their readership resulted in a demand for greater candour, for fictions that represented the lives and concerns of their readers.

    Not only did the moral reticence of the circulating libraries begin to look antiquated, they also encountered increased competition from the growth of public libraries, which did not demand subscription fees, and a price-cutting war between publishers that reduced the price of single-volume reprints. During the s, popular writers such as H. Rider Haggard began to write directly for the single-volume market, while entrepreneurial publishers such as John Lane refused to support outmoded business practices.

    Henry in America and the proliferation of the short story. The Strand quickly became the archetypal model for the middlebrow English journal with its mix of romantic short fictions, human-interest stories, celebrity interviews and attractive presentation. The success of The Strand allowed its editor, George Newnes, to reward his contributors handsomely and to establish a stable of writers.

    Since short stories were in demand, writers were especially well-paid. Commercial success brought with it, though, a new degree of self-consciousness. Whereas mid-Victorian writers, such as Dickens and Anthony Trollope, had thought little about the aesthetics of short fiction, late Victorians, such as Hardy and Robert Louis Stevenson, gave careful attention to the making of the short story.

    In the cases of Conrad and Henry James, this attentiveness was derived from French and Russian influences. Despite the extraordinarily high earnings that could be achieved, the boom in short story publication masks some important facts. Second, the vast sums accorded to short stories were based upon magazine sales. Single author collections were another matter, as Stevenson makes clear: They say republished stories do not sell. Well, that is why I am in a hurry to get this out. The public must be educated to buy mine or I shall never make a cent. At the lower end of the market, for writers employed on cheap magazines, the production of short stories could be more like working on a treadmill.

    Their findings underpinned the Save Our Short Story campaign, which had been launched in Newcastle upon Tyne by writers, editors, publishers and academics. In the first phase of the research, it was discovered that, in , Furthermore, this was a steadily growing trend over the previous three years. While the number of anthologies had increased, single author collections published by mainstream publishers had declined from in to in By contrast, the number of collections from independent publishers had risen from in to in The implications were that writers were likely to receive smaller advances, less publicity and less high street distribution.

    Yet, despite over half of all short story books being published by independents, nearly all of the hundred best-selling titles were from mainstream publishers. These books were also the most frequently borrowed titles from public libraries. Tolkien, as well as the cult celebrity, Howard Marks. The peak periods for buying short stories were in the lead-up to Christmas and during the summer holidays.

    In line with general adult fiction, 57 per cent of purchases were by consumers 50 The Short Story aged over 45 and 60 per cent of purchases were by women. Of two-hundred adults interviewed, slightly over half of all light and medium readers said that they occasionally read short story books. Two-thirds of those who did not said that this was due more to accident than design, but half of this number acknowledged that they read short stories in magazines: 82 per cent of women compared to 35 per cent of men. They also admitted, though, that they tended to read the stories because they were there, were happier to read one story rather than several, and that magazine stories tended to be easier and aimed at the core audience.

    When prompted, one in four respondents thought that short stories were harder to read than longer stories, while fewer than one in ten thought they were easier. Lastly, while more than half of light and medium readers said that lack of time prevented them from reading more, only 15 per cent thought that short stories would be a possible solution. In other words, the brevity of short stories was not in itself a selling point.

    The second phase of research, carried out between July and November , explored the commissioning, publishing and selling of short stories. Consequently, they were more likely to buy a collection on the understanding that there would be a novel, while it was more likely for an independent press to accept a short story collection from a first-time writer.

    Smaller publishers tended to experience greater comparative success with a collection, but like mainstream presses, the advances paid to writers were much lower than for novels. Agents and publishers tended to discourage writers from writing short stories, since the success of a collection depended upon the reputation of the writer, but that a themed collection was easier to sell than one that was not interlinked. The Short Story in England 51 The lack of faith displayed in the idea of a short story collection was felt also by booksellers, who considered that the marketing was often poor.

    Promotions, such as three books for the price of two, could result in improved sales with readers taking a chance on the third. Since most collections are bought on impulse, shelving was a decisive factor, with collections included alongside other sale items and general fiction stock rather than kept separate.

    The packaging of collections and anthologies was another factor, including a strong design, a definite identity and the inclusion of well-known writers. Marketing short stories on their substance rather than their brevity was considered to be the better strategy. Both pieces of research concluded that, contrary to the belief of publishers and academics, readers were generally well-disposed to the short story, and that selling the form to them as a shorter or lighter read was a negative tactic.

    What was absent, and which arguably has been absent since the late nineteenth century, was a culture of reading and appreciating short stories. To do this required the establishment of an organisation equivalent to the Poetry Society and the formation of an infrastructure for short story writing, for instance, by the English and Scottish art councils prioritising their support to independent presses, magazines and literary festivals with a commitment to the short story. In , the short story festival, Small Wonder, was launched in East Sussex. The unanimous recommendation, though, was the foundation of a literary prize devoted to the short story with an accompanying anthology marking the best in contemporary short fiction.

    American models, such as the O. Ironically, Lasdun has lived for several years in upstate New York. His story features an all-American cast and an American setting; it is beautifully well-crafted with an elegant turn of irony worthy of The New Yorker or, indeed, The Paris Review where it was first published. Very little about the story singles it out as distinctly British, let alone English.

    Despite the attention raised by 52 The Short Story the Save Our Short Story campaign, and the excellent work of independent presses such as Comma and Maia, it seems that even at the start of a new century the English short story is in the shadow of its American cousin. For further discussion of the oriental tale, see Ros Ballaster Harris and Harold Orel On the changes in late-Victorian publishing, see Peter Keating The merits of serialisation are discussed by Linda K.

    Hughes and Michael Lund This gap has been partially filled by the use of anthologies, which present in book-form the work of various writers, conferring upon them the visual and cultural presence that the ephemeral form of a magazine or newspaper lacks. Anthologies are, therefore, one of the gateways that readers have into the history and sub-genres of the short story. Yet, the role of the anthology is fraught with problems.

    Edited collections presuppose issues surrounding the selection of writers and texts, the extent to which anthologies set the agenda for the making of literary canons, and the degree to which anthologies publicise the work of individual writers, or groups of writers, within the marketplace. The degree to which a themed collection extends formal unity across the whole work, such as a cycle or sequence, is the subject of a later chapter.

    This chapter explores the various uses made of the anthology — artistic, entertaining, instructive — before concluding with a trio of case studies: Mirrorshades edited by Bruce Sterling, Disco Biscuits edited by Sarah Champion, and All Hail the New Puritans edited by Nicholas Blincoe and Matt Thorne.